KECK INSTITUTE FOR SPACE STUDIES

       

Revolutionizing Access to the Martian Surface

Workshop Image Gallery

The KISS images below are public domain, but must be accompanied by the appropriate image credit.

Figure 1. Crucial scientific measurements for understanding the Mars system require access to and interaction with the Mars surface. Access to and interaction with rocks and ices is needed for measurements of texture, chemistry, mineralogy, isotopes at organics content at sub-centimeter scale. Landed measurements are required for boundary layer winds and measurements of exchanging gases (e.g., CH4, H2) at the surface-atmosphere boundary. Priority measurements of the subsurface that can only be accomplished with landers include sounding for water, heat flow measurement, and detecting Mars quakes to resolve subsurface structure at regional scales.

Image credit: Keck Institute for Space Studies / Chuck Carter.

Figure 2. Mars pulls technology from - and can push technology to - other sectors. Future Mars missions can draw on technology developments from a wide range of sponsors and markets, enabling enhanced capabilities as well as reducing development and recurring costs.

Image credit: Keck Institute for Space Studies / Chuck Carter.

Figure 3. Changing partner relationships will grow the stakeholder pool that is investing at Mars.

Image credit: Keck Institute for Space Studies / Chuck Carter.

Figure 4. Harnessing full contributions from all interested parties is key to a sustained, affordable landed program of exploration at Mars and full realization of economic and societal benefits of the program.

Image credit: Keck Institute for Space Studies / Chuck Carter.

Figure 5. Back cover. A vision of the future where a fast, affordable, and bold Mars exploration strategy delivers dozens of spacecraft to explore the planet’s surface.

Image credit: Keck Institute for Space Studies / Chuck Carter.

Figure 6. Elements of the Frequent, Affordable, Bold strategy.

Image credit: Keck Institute for Space Studies / Chuck Carter.

Figure 7. Qualitative depiction of the last decade has seen a growth in the diversity of stakeholders investing in Mars exploration. New stakeholders are expected to continue into the future as other national agencies and private ventures (e.g., SpaceX) grow investments.

Image credit: Keck Institute for Space Studies / Chuck Carter.

Figure 8. Final report front cover illustration.

Image credit: Keck Institute for Space Studies / Chuck Carter.


Study Final Report:

Culbert, Christopher J. and Ehlmann, Bethany L. and Fraeman, Abigail A. at al. (2022) Revolutionizing Access to the Mars Surface. California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA. DOI:10.7907/d1sm-mj77.
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220222-212156808 (PDF).